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李克强总理夏季达沃斯论坛对话交流实录(1)(中英对照)

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On June 27, 2017, following his address at the Opening Ceremony of the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2017, Premier Li Keqiang answered questions from Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum Klaus Schwab, at the Dalian International Conference Center. On June 28, Premier Li sat down for a dialogue with representatives from international business leaders attending the annual meeting. Below is the full text:
2017年6月27日,国务院总理李克强在大连国际会议中心出席2017年夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式并发表特别致辞后,回答了世界经济论坛主席施瓦布的提问。6月28日,李克强在大连国际会议中心同出席2017年夏季达沃斯论坛的国际工商企业界代表对话交流。有关问答和对话交流实录如下:
Professor Schwab: In your speech, you talked about the dynamic development of the Chinese economy as well as relevant policies. I'm sure these policies can help sustain such dynamism. It is a remarkable achievement for China, the second biggest economy in the world, to grow at nearly 7 percent. Could you please share with us in greater detail what measures the government will take to keep such positive momentum going in the future?
施瓦布:您在刚才的致辞中向我们展示了中国经济的活力,介绍了一些相应政策。相信这些政策能够帮助中国经济保持发展活力。中国作为世界第二大经济体,实现接近7%的经济增长,这是一个非常了不起的成就。您是否可以同我们更加详细地分享一下,中国政府将采取哪些具体措施保持经济增长的活力?
Premier Li: China used to grow at double-digit rates, but now the growth has moderated to a medium-high level of 6.9 percent in the first quarter of this year. Some characterize this trend as a slowdown, but that wouldn't be very accurate, as the Chinese economy has become much bigger than before. Every one percentage point of growth in GDP now would generate the same amount of additional output as 1.5 percentage point growth five years ago or 2 percent growth ten years ago. I often use the analogy of somersaults to describe such a situation: It is much easier for a child to do a dozen somersaults at one go than for an adult, for whom just three or four would be quite an accomplishment. For major economies with GDPs of $2 trillion or above, a 3 percent growth would be no mean feat. I hope you can view the Chinese economy in an objective way. It will keep growing at medium-high speed, as we have 1.3 billion people, huge market potential and social creativity.
李克强:中国经济过去曾经有过两位数的增长,现在从高速增长逐步转换到中高速增长。比如,今年一季度中国经济增速是6.9%,有人说这是放缓了。这么说不完全准确,因为中国经济的体量与过去不一样了,现在每增长一个百分点,相当于5年前的1.5个百分点、10年前的2个百分点。我曾经比喻一个小孩子翻跟头,一口气可以翻十几个,但是成年人一口气能翻三四个跟头就已经很了不得了。世界上经济总量超过两万亿美元的主要经济体,经济增速能够达到3%就相当了不得了。希望大家能够客观地看待中国经济的走势。中国经济会持续保持中高速增长。我们有13亿人口,拥有巨大的市场潜力和社会创造力。
To sustain the positive momentum requires a host of measures. We will keep on working in the following three areas for a considerable time to come.
当然,要实现中国经济较长时间的中高速增长需要多种措施,在当前和今后一段时间里,起码有三条我们会坚守住:
First, we will maintain stability in macroeconomic policies. This means we will continue to implement a proactive fiscal policy and prudent monetary policy. We will not resort to massive stimulus measures. Instead, we will continue to undertake structural adjustments and provide the market with stable and clear expectations, which is of overriding importance in a market economy.
一是保持宏观政策的稳定,继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策。我们不会搞"大水漫灌",而是要推动结构调整,给市场一个稳定的、明确的预期。市场经济中,预期是最重要的。
Second, we will advance reform and opening-up. In undertaking supply-side structural reforms, the government will continue to streamline administration, delegate its power, widen market access and enhance compliance oversight to create a level playing field. We will ease corporate burdens by reducing taxes and administrative fees to unleash the vitality of the market.
二是继续深化改革、扩大开放。在推进供给侧结构性改革方面,要着力推动简政放权、降低市场准入门槛,同时加强事中事后监管,营造公平竞争环境。减费降税,给企业减负,让市场活力更多迸发。
Third, we will accelerate efforts to replace traditional drivers of growth with new ones. We will adopt market and rules-based approach to tackle and phase out excess and backward capacity in steel, coal and other sectors. Meanwhile, we will work hard to grow new drivers and encourage the development of new technologies, new business forms and models. In this process, the government will exercise accommodating and prudent supervision to provide an enabling environment for the healthy growth of the new economy. Furthermore, Chinese and foreign-invested companies will be treated as equals.
三是加快推进新旧动能接续转换,坚持用市场化、法治化的办法来化解和淘汰钢铁、煤炭等领域的过剩或落后产能。与此同时,着力培育新动能,发展新技术、新业态、新模式,采取包容审慎监管,使它们能够成长起来,健康发展下去。对于中外企业,我们都一视同仁。
Professor Schwab: Looking around the world, the Chinese government has been most effective in embracing the Fourth Industrial Revolution. I want to congratulate you and the Chinese government on that. That said, the Fourth Industrial Revolution also has its disruptive effect, including on employment and income distribution. You did talk about this in your opening speech. What steps is the Chinese government taking to reduce such adverse impact?
施瓦布:在全球范围内,中国政府引入第四次工业革命工作做得最好。我要向您、向中国政府表示祝贺。当然,第四次工业革命有时也会带来一些颠覆性的影响,包括在就业和收入分配方面。您在开幕演讲中也提到这一点。中国政府正在采取什么举措,减少这些负面影响?
Premier Li: Thank you, Professor Schwab, for your positive comments on the steps taken by the Chinese government in the Fourth Industrial Revolution or the new industrial revolution, but I would hesitate to say that we are most effective in this aspect. As a Chinese proverb goes, "when the moon reaches its fullest, it begins to wane". We are in constant pursuit of perfection out of a recognition of our own imperfections. I believe the new round of industrial revolution brings more opportunities than challenges, but it is not always the case in all fields and sectors. After all, everything has its pros and cons.
李克强:感谢施瓦布先生对中国政府在第四次工业革命或者说新一轮工业革命中采取的措施所给予的肯定。我们不敢说自己做得最好。中国有一句成语,叫做"月盈则亏",我们始终是在不完美中追求完美。至于说新一轮工业革命,我认为带来的机遇大于挑战。当然也不是在每个领域、每个方面都是如此,天下事有利必有弊。
Take employment for example, will the extensive application of artificial intelligence and robots deprive people of their jobs? This is indeed a question, and it is already happening in some industries and sectors. Yet, through the Internet Plus initiative and mass entrepreneurship and innovation, new technologies and new business forms empowered by the new round of industrial revolution, such as online shopping, express delivery and bike-sharing, have generated far more jobs than those taken by robots. In this sense, what we are experiencing is only a structural shift, which calls for adjusting the training in labor skills. We will meet such challenge head on, because it is simply inescapable. More importantly, the development of new technologies, business forms and models makes it possible to accommodate and harness people's individual choices to generate greater market potential and put everyone's talent to best use. By pooling the wisdom of all people, we will be able to create far more wealth and jobsthan what have been lost.
比如就业方面,人工智能、机器人大规模发展会不会导致失业问题?这的确是个问题,在有些行业、有些领域就发生了。但是我们发现,通过"互联网+",通过"双创",新一轮工业革命带来的网购、快递、共享单车等新技术、新业态所创造的就业岗位,远远多于被机器人替代的岗位。这只是一个结构的转换,或者说是对劳动者技能培训的调整问题。我们敢于去应对这种挑战,因为这个挑战本身是不可避免的,而且通过发展新技术、新业态、新模式,有利于让所有人的个性选择发挥出来,形成巨大的市场潜力,让每个人的智慧能够充分地发挥。通过汇聚众智,创造的财富、增加的岗位就一定会远远大于失去的。
This is a race against time. Professor Schwab just said that in the future, it's not going to be the big fish eating the small fish, but the fast fish eating the slow fish. I want to add to that metaphor. The fast fish will certainly do better than the slow fish, but I do hope that the slow fish will move faster and catch up with the fast fish, and the fast fish will also turn around to help the slow fish.
我们的确在和时间赛跑。施瓦布先生曾讲到,未来不是大鱼吃小鱼,而是快鱼吃慢鱼。我想略做补充,快鱼一定会优于慢鱼,但我希望,慢鱼能够加快速度追上快鱼,快鱼也能够回过头来帮助慢鱼。
Feike Sijbesma, Chairman and CEO of the Royal DSM Group: Premier Li, over the last several years, key tasks have been performed on the supply-side reform. My question is: Could you elaborate a little bit on the progress in these areas and the contribution the international business community can bring to reform in the next stage?
荷兰皇家帝斯曼集团董事长兼首席执行官谢白曼:李总理,在过去的几年中,中国供给侧结构性改革的几个重点任务已经确定。我想问,中国在这些领域取得了哪些进展?另外,国际工商界能够为中国推进下一阶段改革发挥什么作用?
Premier Li: China has focused on supply-side structural reform in comprehensively deepening reform in recent years. One of its key tasks is to phase out and cut overcapacity in coal and steel production. Last year alone, more than 65 million tons of steelmaking capacity and over 290 million tons of coal-production capacity were eliminated. At the same time, we are nurturing new drivers of growth and reducing the burden on companies by widening market access and cutting taxes and administrative fees. A multitude of new market entities has since sprung up in China. Over the past four years, the number of Chinese enterprises has doubled, reaching 27 million, and the number of market entities in total has surpassed 90 million. They have spawned a surge in new technologies and new business forms. China's reform, especially supply-side structural reform, has boosted the structural transformation and upgrading of the Chinese economy.
李克强:中国近几年来在推进全面深化改革进程中,以供给侧结构性改革为主线,重点推进了一些领域的改革,包括对煤炭、钢铁过剩产能进行消化和淘汰。仅去年,我们就淘汰了6500万吨以上钢铁和2.9亿吨以上煤炭产能。与此同时,我们也在推动培育新的发展动能,通过降低市场准入门槛、减税降费,减轻企业负担,大量新的市场主体在不断涌现。过去4年间,中国的企业数量翻了一番,现在总量已经达到2700万户,市场主体超过9000万户,它们在催生着大量的新技术、新业态。中国的改革尤其是供给侧结构性改革,在推动中国经济结构转型升级。
We all know that excess capacity exists in some sectors globally. This is the result of the quantitative easing policies taken by some countries in response to the financial crisis. Nothing short of a global solution is required. In the face of this issue, China has not shied away from its responsibilities. Instead, we have made painstaking efforts to phase out excess capacity through supply-side structural reform, which is also our contribution to the international community.
大家都知道,国际上一些领域出现产能过剩,这是国际金融危机发生以后,许多国家实施量化宽松政策导致的一个结果,需要全球共同努力来解决这个问题。中国没有推卸责任,而且主动作为,通过供给侧结构性改革在消化过剩产能方面付出了努力,也为国际社会作出了贡献。
Over the past three decades, reform in China has always moved forward side by side with opening-up in a mutually reinforcing way. To advance reform, we need the participation of foreign capital, businesses and expertise. Foreign companies are welcome to take part in the merger and reorganization of enterprises in China. While fostering new growth drivers, we will lower market access thresholds in service sectors for foreign investors and introduce a negative-list management model. The policy support enjoyed by Chinese companies in keeping with WTO rules will be equally applied to foreign enterprises registered in China. We welcome continued investment from your company in China.
30多年来,中国的改革和开放从来都是并行的,而且相互促进。中国推进改革的过程中需要外资、外商、外国智力的参与,我们也欢迎外国企业到中国来,参与企业的兼并重组。我们在培育新动能过程中,将进一步降低服务业对外资的准入门槛,实施负面清单管理。中国给予国内企业的一些符合世界贸易组织规则的政策支持,只要是外资企业在中国注册,我们将一视同仁。欢迎贵公司继续加大在中国的投资力度。
Alex Molinaroli, Chairman and CEO of Johnson Controls: The Made-in-China 2025 strategy has greatly promoted China's manufacturing and innovation capabilities. You have already addressed one of my questions about foreign investment and a level playing field for foreign companies within China when answering the last question. Then what challenges and obstacles are there in the implementation of this strategy and what does the Chinese government plan to do in response?
美国江森自控集团董事长穆安礼:"中国制造2025"战略对中国提高生产和创新能力起到了极大的推动作用。您在回答前一个问题的时候,已经部分谈到我个人关注的领域,那就是外商在中国的投资,以及为外资提供公平的环境。我的问题是,"中国制造2025"战略在继续落实方面,面临哪些挑战、障碍或阻力?如果有的话,中国政府将采取什么措施予以应对?
Premier Li: The Made-in-China 2025 is a forward-looking strategy developed on the basis of the current industrialization level in China. It is designed to raise the quality of Chinese products and equipment. While made-in-China products have acquired a sound global reputation, those products are still at the low and medium level in terms of quality. Similarly, China's equipment is yet to reach a high level, and we still need to import foreign equipment. The Made-in-China 2025 strategy aims to boost the quality of Chinese equipment with the application of intelligent technologies through cooperation with foreign partners.
李克强:"中国制造2025",是根据中国目前的工业化水平、放眼未来制定的,核心内容是要提高中国产品和中国装备的质量和水平。一方面,中国制造可以说是已经享誉全球,但是中国制造的水平总体还处于中低端。另一方面,中国的装备和中国制造一样总体水平也不高,还需要引进国外的装备。"中国制造2025"就是要在中外合作中,推动中国装备的水平向智能化的方向发展,在现有的层次上不断提高质量。
First, the Made-in-China 2025 strategy will bring huge opportunities for both Chinese and foreign businesses. To enhance the quality of their products, Chinese companies need to introduce advanced techniques and equipment. This can be achieved through cooperation with developed countries. For example, we are synergizing this strategy with Germany's Industry 4.0, and cooperating with the United States. In the future, more foreign equipment-manufacturing products and technologies will enter the Chinese market.
第一,"中国制造2025"的实施会给中外企业带来巨大的市场机遇。中国企业要提高产品制造的质量,必须提高工艺水平和装备水平。在这个提高过程中,我们需要同发达国家合作,比如我们现在同德国"工业4.0"、同美国方面都有合作,未来也会有更多的国外装备制造产品和技术进入中国市场。
Second, we expect to see more cooperation between Chinese and foreign companies in equipment technologies. For foreign equipment makers to expand their presence in the Chinese market, they need to localize their products. For example, the US company General Motors has been able to take a big share of the Chinese market through setting up joint ventures with Chinese companies and remodeling its vehicles according to road and climatic conditions in China. This has secured a growing market for the company in China. I want to stress that such cooperation is voluntary and helps companies expand in the Chinese market and even in third countries. The Chinese government does not allow Chinese companies to impose mandatory technology transfer requirements on their foreign partners, still less will we tolerate infringements on intellectual property rights.
第二,会有更多的中外企业在装备技术领域开展合作。国外装备在中国要争取更大的市场,需要把产品本地化。比如美国通用汽车在中国市场占据了相当份额,它是和中国企业合资,按照中国的道路状况、气候条件等进行了改造,所以在中国的市场份额不断扩大。有一点,我要强调,这种合作是企业自愿、有利于开拓中国市场甚至第三方市场的。中国政府不允许中国企业强迫合资方转让技术,更不允许出现侵犯知识产权的行为。
Third, in areas of the Made-in-China 2025 strategy, such as green development, where both the Paris Agreement and WTO encourage governments to provide policy support, foreign-invested companies registered in China will enjoy the same policy incentives offered by the Chinese government as their Chinese counterparts.
第三,关于"中国制造2025"有关领域,比如绿色发展领域,《巴黎协定》、世界贸易组织等都鼓励各国政府予以政策支持。只要是外国企业在中国注册,中国政府将给予同内资企业一样的政策支持。
Now, let me address a misunderstanding about the Made-in-China 2025 strategy. To those people who seem to believe that the purpose of the relevant policies is to shut the door on imports of foreign equipment, let me say this: First, door-shutting is impossible. We live in a globalized world, where companies make their own choices about the equipment they want to purchase, and they should be given the right to do so in the open market. Second, it is natural for any country to want to make equipment of a higher quality. It is only that in a globalized world, this cannot be done with one's doors closed. Third, given the size of the Chinese market, when China climbs up the quality ladder, this will also boost global demand for manufactured products and equipment.
现在对"中国制造2025"有一种误解,好像我们出台的这些政策,目的是将来不再购买国外装备了。第一,这是不可能的。因为这是一个全球化的世界,企业购买装备由它们自主选择。在这个开放的市场条件下应该给企业选择的权利。第二,任何一个国家都愿意提高本国装备的质量和水平,这本身无可非议。但是如果关起门来干,在全球化的条件下等于是"闭门造车",是不行的。第三,像中国这样巨大的市场,产品质量和装备水平提高了,也必然会促进世界市场的扩大。
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mandatory ['mændətəri]
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